# 4. Combination of over- and under-sampling¶

We previously presented SMOTE and showed that this method can generate noisy samples by interpolating new points between marginal outliers and inliers. This issue can be solved by cleaning the space resulting from over-sampling.

In this regard, Tomek’s link and edited nearest-neighbours are the two cleaning methods that have been added to the pipeline after applying SMOTE over-sampling to obtain a cleaner space. The two ready-to use classes imbalanced-learn implements for combining over- and undersampling methods are: (i) SMOTETomek [BPM2004] and (ii) SMOTEENN [BBM2003].

Those two classes can be used like any other sampler with parameters identical to their former samplers:

>>> from collections import Counter
>>> from sklearn.datasets import make_classification
>>> X, y = make_classification(n_samples=5000, n_features=2, n_informative=2,
...                            n_redundant=0, n_repeated=0, n_classes=3,
...                            n_clusters_per_class=1,
...                            weights=[0.01, 0.05, 0.94],
...                            class_sep=0.8, random_state=0)
>>> print(sorted(Counter(y).items()))
[(0, 64), (1, 262), (2, 4674)]
>>> from imblearn.combine import SMOTEENN
>>> smote_enn = SMOTEENN(random_state=0)
>>> X_resampled, y_resampled = smote_enn.fit_resample(X, y)
>>> print(sorted(Counter(y_resampled).items()))
[(0, 4060), (1, 4381), (2, 3502)]
>>> from imblearn.combine import SMOTETomek
>>> smote_tomek = SMOTETomek(random_state=0)
>>> X_resampled, y_resampled = smote_tomek.fit_resample(X, y)
>>> print(sorted(Counter(y_resampled).items()))
[(0, 4499), (1, 4566), (2, 4413)]


We can also see in the example below that SMOTEENN tends to clean more noisy samples than SMOTETomek.

References

 [BPM2004] G. Batista, R. C. Prati, M. C. Monard. “A study of the behavior of several methods for balancing machine learning training data,” ACM Sigkdd Explorations Newsletter 6 (1), 20-29, 2004.
 [BBM2003] G. Batista, B. Bazzan, M. Monard, “Balancing Training Data for Automated Annotation of Keywords: a Case Study,” In WOB, 10-18, 2003.